Davud Turan

On December 12, 1945, the Azerbaijan National Government was formed. It is possible to say that the National Government, established under the leadership of S.J.Pishavari was organized and operated based on the modern state structure. The National Government taking the Azerbaijani identity as a basis has approved itself within the framework of regular and legal relationship of institutions such as the government, parliament party and army recognized as the modern state devices.
We can evaluate the fact of having a significant background of the National Government as a consequence of forming the modern state phenomenon by Pişeveri and his compeers. The true reason for the success obtained by the National Government was that the bureaucracy and the political system was established on a regular basis. The situation in question has given rise toincrease the working capacity the national government. The National Government has a its own work allocation mechanism as a political system. The establishments forming their own political structure as a result of the mentioned work allocation operated within the framework of the organic and regularrelations.
The purpose of this study is to determine and analyze the systematic relations between the institutions inside the National Government. In other words, our goalin this study is to set forth the political structure of the Azerbaijan National Government. This paper deals with the establishment process of the state, its political staff, forming and structure of the National Assembly, structure of ministers counsel and relationship between Parliament, Government and people’s armies.
Formation of the Democratic Party of Azerbaijan
The democratic winds blew in Iran after the Second World War caused coming into existence of various political parties. It is to be noted that the Tudeh* partyhad an important role in South Azerbaijan. Tudeh Party has planned to cover about all territory of Azerbaijan and establish its cells here within a very short term and carried it through. As to the guiding personnel of Tudeh Party in Azerbaijan (Padigan, Biriya, Danişiyan, Shebisteri, Vela), most of these people was persons with nationalist bias and discourse. Thus, these people left the Tudeh party and joined the Democratic Party of Azerbaijan, the nationalist party.
On  September 03, 1945, S.J. Pisheveri, S. Javid and J.Kavyan founded the Democrat Party of Azerbaijan. Ali Shabisteri, known as a nationalist excluded from Tudeh part namely because of his nationalist thoughts joined the party on September 05 together with the newspapers "Azerbaijan Society" and "Azerbaijan" edited by him. And on September 07, the district organization of theTudeh party joined the Democratic Party of Azerbaijan without notifying the central office of the party in Tehran.

Democratic Party’s Political Structure
The Democratic Party, holding its first congress on October 01, 1945 announced its intentions and objectives in a comprehensive manner. After this period, on November 21, the Azerbaijani National Congress was held with participation of 744 people.
Formation and Structure of the National Assembly
To organize elections to the National Assembly based on a decision to be adopted in the congress aimed at establishment of national assembly there was formed a committee of 39 persons. This committee has to make preparatory works for elections in Azerbaijan. To make sound elections in Azerbaijan there were created supervising committees. All classes and strata of the society wereentitled to keep members in these commissions. After establishment of these commissions, there was started to the equitable selection process. The ministerial delegation has been elected amongst Azerbaijan Democrat Party’s members for the supervisory committee.
The elections monitoring mission was assigned to the staff of 4 persons as  a supervisory committee formed amongst Nobles, Handcrafters, Owners, Farmers,Craftsmen, merchants; and a staff of 12 persons defined as reliable representatives amongst experienced politicians. *

Within a period from November 01 to December 27, there were carried out safe, sound and successful elections to the National Assembly in all regions of SouthAzerbaijani. As a result of these elections, 101 deputies accruing the right to represent their districts were able to join the National Assembly.
The researchers comparing the structure of the Azerbaijan National Assemblywith Iranian Assembly were obliged to explain the apparent differences betweenthe two parliamentary assemblies. Thus, the newspapers published in Tehran contained expressions as "there are younger and educated people in the Azerbaijani parliament than ours". The Azerbaijani National Assembly was formed from intellectuals (16), Peasants (12), Officials (10), teacher (8),merchants (10), Mullah (2), working people (15), Owners (12), Manufacturer (2)and artists (14).
On December 12, 1945, the first session of Azerbaijan National Assembly was opened by the oldest deputy Nizamuddevle Rafi. In the first place, the National Assembly elected the presidential board. So, Ali Shebisteri was elected to the post of president, S. Padigan Rafii – to the post of deputy chairman, H.Jevdet - secretary and A.Dibaiyan, Dilmegani and M.A.Teymuri -  members of the presidential board.
In order to create the structure of National Assembly, the charter and internal commissions were worked out after selecting the presidential board. Resting upon the national assembly’s charter we can classify the internal structure of assembly as “assembly’s general meetings”, “assembly’s board of chairmen”, “assembly’s internal commissions” and “the Board of Trustees”.
The internal committees of the Assembly were formed aimed at monitoring on a regular basis the affairs of the government. The assembly’s internal committees were formed in three fields as "national armies", "Finance" and "Justice".
All open sessions of the Azerbaijan National Assembly were joined by alldeputies, chairmen of social organizations, diplomatic representatives andrepresentatives of the media; and the closed sessions –deputies, ministers and their deputies.
Assigning the president of the Supreme Court and Prosecutor-General was within the authority of the national assembly. Z.Giyami and Feridun Ibrahimi were appointed accordingly to the post of the president of the Supreme Court and the Prosecutor-General pursuant to the decision of the national assembly.
The National Assembly has the authority to audit and control on military forces. Therefore, it has decided to establish the National Army. The National Assembly declared that it has issued a decision on establishment of the national army to protect the national government.
Formation of National Government
After completing the forming of its internal organization, the National Assembly has taken actions towards the establishment of the national government. He National Assembly entrusted S.Jafar Pisheveri to form the national government. Pisheveri, after selection the ministers, has submitted it to the consideration of the national assembly to take a vote confidence. National Assembly giving a vote of confidence to Pisheveri has allowed the national government to start work. The members to the Council of Ministers were not selected only from the DemocraticParty. The experts were appointed to the higher posts in the Ministries of health, Justice and Trade, which require high qualification. 
Salemullah Javit, Yusuf Azima, Ilhami, Muhammad Biriya, D.Orengi and Mehtash were accordingly appointed to the post of ministers of home affairs, justice, health, finance, culture and agriculture headed by S.Jafar Pisehveri.
The Azerbaijan National Government, which was the highest executive.Source: http://stratejikbaxis.com